Conception of Learning and Learning Environment
Learning occurs both at individual as well as peer group level and lies in the process of building knowledge and skills. Learning in a purposeful way takes place by a learner independently, in class with a teacher, out of class interaction with the peer group and the larger community. Learning is an active and goal oriented process.
Learning environment must be physically, psychologically and socially safe and motivate learners to develop effective study skills and become lifelong learners.
Core Curriculum Areas
Fostering core competences in learners, the curriculum encompasses seven major learning areas, which are:
- Health and Physical Education
- Visual arts, Performing Arts
Additional Curricular Areas
- Life skills
It refers to the content of learning, not the titles of subjects. Beyond the required core and elective courses, optional courses relevant to specific curriculum areas may also be made available in consideration of changing individual, societal and global requirements and demands.
Major contents of each curriculum learning area in Senior Secondary classes
- Languages include Hindi, English, another regional languages and focuses on listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, along with developing effective communicating proficiencies
- Humanities (Geography, History, Economics, Home Science, Sociology, Fine Arts, Political Science, Fashion Studies, Creative Writing and translation Studies and related subjects) include the learning of history and culture, geographical environment, global institutions, human nature and social compatibility, constitutional values and norms, politics, economy, interpersonal and societal interactions, civic responsibilities, and the incorporation of the above-mentioned learning into one's life
- Performing and Visual Arts (Dance, Drama, Music, Heritage Crafts, Graphic Design, Fine Arts, Sculpture and related subjects) includes music, instruction in these arts, aiming to help learners cultivate an interest and appreciation for arts and encourage them to enthusiastically participate in related activities, thus promoting abilities such as imagination, creativity, value arts, and the cultural heritage
- Science and Technology (Subjects related to Biology, Chemistry, Physics, ICT, Information Practices and Web and Multimedia Studies) include gaining knowledge about matter and energy, nature, the environment, technology, breakthroughs in science. It will focus on knowledge and skills to develop scientific temper and attitude, use and application of such knowledge and skills to improve the quality of life and further use this learning to analyze, evaluate, synthesize, create, invent and discover
- Mathematics includes acquiring the concepts related to number sense, operation sense, computation, measurement, geometry, probability and statistics, the skill to calculate and organize, and the ability to apply this knowledge and acquired skills in their daily life. It also includes understanding of the principles of reasoning and problem solving
- Commerce (Business Studies, Accountancy, Entrepreneurship, Economics and related subjects) includes gaining understanding about core business disciplines like the exchange of items of value or products between persons or companies and any such exchange of money for a product, service, or information is considered a deal of commerce
- Health and Physical Education focuses on the learning for holistic development like mental and physical, understanding the importance of physical fitness, health, well-being and the factors that contribute to them. Focus of this curriculum is on helping learners develop a positive attitude and commitment to lifelong healthy active living and the capacity to live satisfying, productive lives with the help of proper health management, sports, fitness and lifestyle choices.
These seven learning areas are to be integrated with each other in terms of knowledge, skills (life and livelihood), comprehension, values and attitudes. Learners should get opportunities to connect between different areas of knowledge and application. They should be encouraged to cognize and appreciate the interconnectedness of all knowledge and the enduring connection between knowledge and values.
Main pedagogical outcomes for curriculum learning areas
- Learners use language to comprehend, acquire and communicate ideas and
information and to interact with others
- Learners identify, integrate and apply numerical and spatial concepts and
techniques. They have clarity of concepts and are able to connect them to the real
- Learners understand and appreciate the physical, biological and technological world
and have the knowledge, attitude, skills and values to make rational decisions in
relation to it
- Learners understand their cultural, geographical and historical milieus and have the
knowledge, attitude, skills and values necessary to bring about transformation for a better
- Learners recognize the requirement of information, locate and resource it from a range of data available and evaluate, use and collaborate it with others.
- Learners identify, select, use technologies and are able to synthesize, innovate and
discover newer technologies as required
- Learners rationalize and reason about pre-defined arrangements, norms and
relationships in order to comprehend, decode, validate and develop more relevant
- Learners think laterally, critically, identify opportunity, challenge their potential and
are open to challenges. They are aware of consequences and take ownership of their
- Learners interact harmoniously with people and cultures from across the globe and
are tolerant and empathetic towards others
- Learners involve themselves in cultural pursuits as well as appreciate, respect and
Acknowledge the artistic, cultural and intellectual work of others
- Learners value and engage in practices that promote personal physical as well as
mental and Cognitive development and well being
- Learners have positive self-esteem. They are confident and self-motivated learners
who are able to work independently as well as collaboratively
- Learners appreciate and value everyone's right to feel respected and safe, and, in this
regard, also understand their constitutional rights as well as duties and behave
- Learners are aware and participate responsibly in the social, political, economic and
- Learners are equipped with the attitude and skills to be a lifelong learner