Syllabus Of Grade X – ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES (ES1002)


  • This syllabus is divided into eleven units. All the units are compulsory.
  • Separate marks are given with each unit.
Unit Area Covered Marks
unit 1 Controlling Air Pollution 10 read more
unit 2 Addressing Population 10 read more
unit 3 Managing The Urban Environment 05 read more
unit 4 Managing Soil And Land 10 read more
unit 5 Food 10 read more
unit 6 Biodiversity 10 read more
unit 7 Energy 10 read more
unit 8 Waste 05 read more
unit 9 Environment And Development 06 read more
unit 10 Towards A Sustainable Future 04 read more
unit 11 Internal Assessment 20 read more
Total Marks 100 Time: 3 Hours

Unit 1

Controlling Air Pollution (10 Marks)

1). From domestic combustion.

Reducing pollution from domestic cooking; clean cooking - kerosene as a desirable cooking fuel in rural areas.

2). From industries

Measures for controlling industrial air pollution - technological measures (energy efficient devices, clean technologies), meteorological controls; zoning strategy; penalties and subsidies; Case Study: the Taj Trapezium.

3). From vehicles

Vehicle emission control - modify engine design (catalytic converters, four stroke engines), clean fuels, public transport options, traffic management, economic policy measures.

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Unit 2

Addressing Population (10 Marks)

1). The link between growing population and environmental degradation

UN's population projections for 2050, the climate link, the choice of alternative futures. Growing population in the developing countries and rising consumption in the developed countries.

2). The demographic transition

Stages of transition, transition stages of certain developed nations and developing nations (such as India, China, Korea, Malaysia). Not to be tested, for knowledge and understanding only

3). Strategies for controlling growth of population

Strategies to include family planning and birth control, health care, education, economic development; women-centered human development

4). Development framework for poverty alleviation

Social mobilization, agricultural development, small-scale industries, human development. Not to be tested, for knowledge and understanding only

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Unit 3

Managing The Urban Environment (05 Marks)

1). Urbanization - a challenge to the future.

Sustainable cities: the need of the hour.

2). Planning environmental improvement.

Sustainable cities: the need of the hour.

3). Rural development to counter migration.


4). Development of secondary cities to counter migration.


5). Community participation and contribution of private enterprises.

Community participation in keeping surroundings clean, participation of private enterprises in city improvement, measures to increase private enterprise participation.

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Unit 4

Managing Soil And Land (10 Marks)

1). Conserving soil

Erosion control techniques - terracing, contour ploughing, dry farming, tree planting, bunds, gullies, wind-breaks, use of organic fertilizers. Soil conservation techniques - land-use management, vegetative and mechanical practices, conserving soil and water together; appropriate cropping systems – cropping patterns (strip cropping), tree crops, foliage crops.

2). Land reforms

Meaning, measures enforced in India to give land to the landless.

3). Integrated rural development

Objectives, self-help schemes like social and community forestry.

4). Role of women and community in conservation


5). Combating deforestation

Reforestation, energy plantations, forest harvesting of non-timber forest products, exploring alternative sources of livelihood, change in consumption patterns.

6). Managing forest grazing

Causes and consequences of overgrazing, controlled forest grazing as in National Forest Policy, 1988.

7). Alternatives to timber

Recycling of timber and paper.

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Unit 5

Food (10 Marks)

1). Sustainable agriculture

Integrated pest management – understanding the term, aims, advantages, disadvantages. Genetically modified organisms, application in plants and animals and environmental risks. New crop strains – high yielding varieties and their viability, hybrid varieties. Mixed cropping – advantages and disadvantages; regenerative farming techniques - intercropping, crop rotation, agro forestry, polyvarietal cultivation and polyculture. Conservation tillage farming - meaning of conservation tillage, advantages and disadvantages. Trickle drip irrigation – need for a trickle drip irrigation system; operation of a drip irrigation system; advantages and disadvantages. New organic fertilizers – integrated nutrient supply programme, organic fertilizers - bulky organic manures, green manures, bio-fertilizers, and sewage sludge. Gene banks – what are gene banks; objectives of maintaining gene banks.

2). Problem of global food security, food aid

Global food imbalance, distributional inequality; role of food aid in achieving global food security.

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Unit 6

Biodiversity (10 Marks)

1). Biodiversity at risk due to human actions

Reasons for loss of biodiversity; Man - the super consumer: impact of his actions on the earth's resources; reasons for concern: economic, ecological and aesthetic.

2). Conserving our genetic resource: in-situ and ex-situ; harvesting wildlife

In-situ - wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and biosphere reserves. Ex-situ – zoological parks, botanical gardens, gene banks in agricultural research centres and forestry institutions. Harvesting wildlife to meet commercial needs.

3). Conservation strategies at national and international levels

Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, Project Tiger 1973, IUCN, The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, 1971, CITES, The Convention on Biological Diversity.

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Unit 7

Energy (10 Marks)

1). Fossil fuels used to produce electricity

Electricity: energy on demand; dwindling supplies of fossil fuel; renewable and non- renewable energy resources. Not to be tested, for knowledge and understanding only.

2). Nuclear energy

Nuclear fission, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy; safety concerns (the Chernobyl disaster); nuclear fusion.

3). A sustainable energy future

Energy conservation; alternative energy sources - solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, biomass, liquid fuels from biomass- methanol, ethanol, gasohol, CNG, hydrogen.

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Unit 8

Waste (05 Marks)

1). Solid waste: the throwaway society

Solid waste, biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials; where does the trash go - landfills and incinerators.

2). Solid waste: options for the future

Producing less waste, reusing, recycling, composting, vermiculture, biotechnology; finding alternatives to materials we use.

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Unit 9

Environment And Development (06 Marks)

1). Global environmental pollution

Who is responsible - developed or developing countries? Need for mutual cooperation.

2). Economic development and environmental degradation

Role of developed and developing countries; contrasting views of developed and developing countries; debt trap.

3). International trade

Its link to environmental deterioration – unfair trade practices.

4). Role of multinational corporations

Definition of MNCs, their contribution to development and debatable contribution to environment; case study - Bhopal gas tragedy; measures to regulate activities of MNCs in developing countries.

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Unit 10

Towards A Sustainable Future (04 Marks)

1). Global interdependence – economic and environmental

2). International cooperation

The Montreal Protocol; the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) support; the Earth Summit, UN's International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo); the Kyoto Treaty.

3). Sustainable development

The concept of sustainable development, sustainable development and developed countries; sustainable development and developing countries.

4). Role of non-governmental organizations


5). Technology that sustains

Satellite imagery as a means of monitoring the global environment: satellite remote sensing, advantages in collecting environmental data, applying data in areas of environmental damage as deforestation, desertification, land degradation, wastelands, mining, ozone layer depletion and predicting droughts and floods. The concept of alternate technology, adopting alternate technology to create self-sustaining societies in the developed and developing world. Role of biotechnology in achieving global food security.

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Unit 11

Internal Assessment (20 Marks)

A minimum of three assignments as prescribed by the teacher, need to be completed.

Suggested Assignments

1. Make a field study of the effect of human interaction on the natural environment and write a project report (1500 words) on the likely impact of the interaction on the global environment

2. Prepare an original study/essay (2000 words) on an area of the prescribed curriculum that is indicative of his/her appreciation/concern forenvironmental issues and make a functional model to support the above.


The assignments/project work are to be evaluated by the subject teacher and by an External Examiner. (The External Examiner may be a teacher nominated by the Head of the school, who could be from the faculty, but not teaching the subject in the section/class. For example, a teacher of EVS of Class VIII may be deputed to be an External Examiner for Class X, Environmental Science projects.)

The Internal Examiner and the External Examiner will assess the assignments independently.

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