# Syllabus Of Grade X - MATHEMATICS (ME1004)

## Instructions:

• This syllabus is divided into four units. All the units are compulsory.
• Separate marks are given with each unit.
 Unit Area Covered Marks unit 1 NUMBER SYSTEMS, ALGEBRA 30 read more unit 2 TRIGONOMETRY, COORDINATE GEOMETRY 30 read more unit 3 GEOMETRY MEASUREMENT 30 read more unit 4 STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY 10 read more Total Marks : 100 Time: 3 Hours

# Unit 1

NUMBER SYSTEMS & ALGEBRA (30 Marks)

REAL NUMBERS

Euclid's division lemma, Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic - statements after reviewing work done earlier and after illustrating and motivating through examples, Proofs of results - irrationality of √2,√3, √5, decimal expansions of rational numbers in terms of terminating/non-terminating recurring decimals.

## ALGEBRA

POLYNOMIALS

Zeros of a polynomial. Relationship between zeros and coefficients of a polynomial with particular reference to quadratic polynomials. Statement and simple problems on division algorithm for polynomials with real coefficients.

PAIR OF LINEAR EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

Pair of linear equations in two variables. Geometric representation of different possibilities of solutions inconsistency. Algebraic conditions for number of solutions. Solution of pair of linear equations in two variables algebraically- by substitution, by elimination and by cross multiplication. Simple situational problems must be included.

Standard form of a quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a1 0). Solution of the quadratic equations (only real roots) by factorization and by completing the square, i.e. by using quadratic formula. Relationship between discriminant and nature of roots. Problems related today to day activities to be incorporated.

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS

Motivation for studying AP. Derivation of standard results of finding the nth term and sum of first n terms.

# Unit 2

TRIGONOMETRY & COORDINATE GEOMETRY (30 Marks)

INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY

Trigonometric ratios of an acute angle of a right-angled triangle. Proof of their existence (well defined); motivate the ratios, whichever are defined at 0o & 90o. Values (with proofs) of the trigonometric ratios of 30o, 45o & 60o. Relationships between the ratios.

TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

Proof and applications of the identity sin2 A + cos2 A = 1. Only simple identities to be given. Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles.

HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES

Simple and believable problems on heights and distances. Problems should not involve more than two right triangles. Angles of elevation/depression should be only 30o, 45o, 60o.

## COORDINATE GEOMETRY

LINES (In two-dimensions)

Review the concepts of coordinate geometry done earlier including graphs of linear equations. Awareness of geometrical representation of quadratic polynomials. Distance between two points and section formula (internal). Area of a triangle.

# Unit 3

GEOMETRY & MEASUREMENT (30 Marks)

TRIANGLES

Definitions, examples, counter examples of similar triangles

• (Prove) If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the same ratio.
• (Motivate) If a line divides two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, the line is parallel to the third side.
• (Motivate) If in two triangles, the corresponding angles are equal, their corresponding sides are proportional and the triangles are similar.
• (Motivate) If the corresponding sides of two triangles are proportional, their corresponding angles are equal and the two triangles are similar.
• (Motivate) If one angle of a triangle is equal to one angle of another triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, the two triangles are similar.
(Motivate) If a perpendicular is drawn from the vertex of the right angle of a right triangle to the hypotenuse, the triangles on each side of the perpendicular are similar to the whole
• triangle and to each other.
• (Prove) The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares on their corresponding sides.
• (Prove) In a right triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides.
• (Prove) In a triangle, if the square on one side is equal to sum of the squares on the other two sides, the angles opposite to the first side is a right triangle.

CIRCLES

• Tangents to a circle motivated by chords drawn from points coming closer and closer and closer to the point.
• (Prove) The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius through the point of contact.
• (Prove) The lengths of tangents drawn from an external point to circle are equal.

CONSTRUCTIONS

• Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internally).
• Tangent to a circle from a point outside it.
• Construction of a triangle similar to a given triangle.

## MEASUREMENT

AREAS RELATED TO CIRCLES

Motivate the area of a circle; area of sectors and segments of a circle. Problems based on areas and perimeter / circumference of the above said plane figures. (In calculating area of segment of a circle, problems should be restricted to central angle of 60o, 90o & 120o only. Plane figures involving triangles, simple quadrilaterals and circle should be taken.)

SURFACE AREAS AND VOLUMES

• Problem on finding surface areas and volumes of combinations of any two of the following: cubes, cuboids, spheres, hemispheres and right circular cylinder/cones. Frustum of a cone.
• Problems involving converting one type of metallic solid into another and other mixed problem. (Problems with combination of not more than two different solids be taken).

# Unit 4

STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY (10 Marks)

STATISTICS

Mean, median and mode of grouped data (bimodal situation to be avoided). Cumulative frequency graph.

PROBABILITY

Classical definition of probability. Connection with probability as given in class IX. Simple problem on single events, not using set notation.

Referred Books

1. Mathematics Text Book for 10th class
2. Exemplars Problems (English)