Classification of computers: basics of computer and its operation; functional components and their interconnections, concept of booting.
Software concepts: Types of Software - system software, utility software and application software
System Software: Operating system, complier, interpreter and assembler
Operating System: Need for operating system, functions of operating system (processor management, memory management, file management and device management), types of operating system-interactive (GUI based), time sharing, real time and distributed, commonly used operating system: UNIX, LINUX, Windows, Solaris, BOSS (Bharat Operating System Solutions); Mobile OS –Android, Symbian.
Utility Software: Anti Virus, File Management tools, Compression tools and Disk Management tools (Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, Backup).
Open Source Concepts: Open source software, freeware, shareware, proprietary software.
Application Software: Office tools - word processor, presentation tool, spreadsheet package, database management system; domain specific tools - school management system, inventory management system, payroll system, financial accounting, hotel management, reservation system and weather forecasting system.
Number System: Binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal and conversion between two different number systems.
Internal Storage encoding of Characters: ASCII, ISCII (Indian Scripts Standard Code for Information Interchange), and UNICODE (for multilingual computing)
Microprocessor: Basic concepts, Clock speed (MHz, GHz), 16 bit, 32 bit, 64 bit, 128 bit processors; Types - CISC Processors (Complex Instruction Set Computing), RISC Processors (Reduced Instruction Set Computing), and EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing).
Memory Concepts: Units: Byte, Kilo Byte, Mega Byte, Giga Byte, Tera Byte, Peta Byte, Exa Byte, Zetta Byte, Yotta Byte.
Primary Memory: Cache, RAM, ROM
Secondary Memory: Fixed and Removable storage - Hard Disk Drive, CD/DVD Drive, Pen Drive, Blue Ray Disk.
Input Output Ports/ Connections: Serial, Parallel and Universal Serial Bus, PS-2 port, Infrared port, Bluetooth, Firewire.
General Concepts: Clarity and simplicity of expressions, Use of proper names for identifiers, comments, indentation; documentation and program maintenance; running and debugging programs, syntax errors, run-time errors, logical errors
Problem solving methodologies: Understanding of the problem, solution for the problem, breaking down solution into simple steps (modular approach), identification of arithmetic and logical operations required for solution; control structure- conditional control and looping (finite and infinite).
Problem Solving: Introduction to algorithms/flowcharts.
Getting Started: Introduction to Python - an integrated high level language, interactive mode and script mode. Data types –Number (Integer - boolean, decimal, octal, hexadecimal; Floating point; Complex), none, Sequence (String,Tuples, List ) Sets, Mapping.
Mutable and Immutable Variables
Variables, Expressions and Statements: Values, Variables and keywords; Operators and Operands in Python: (Arithmetic, relational and logical operators), operator precedence, Expressions and Statements (Assignment statement); Taking input (using raw_input() and input()) and displaying output (print statement); Putting Comments.
Functions:Importing Modules (entire module or selected objects), invoking built in functions, functions from math module (for example, ceil, floor, fabs, exp, log, log10, pow, sqrt, cos, sin, tan, degrees, radians), using random() and randint() functions of random module to generate random numbers, composition.
Defining functions: Defining functions, invoking functions, passing parameters (default parameter values, keyword arguments), scope of variables, void functions and functions returning values, flow of execution
Conditional constructs and looping: if else statement while, for (range function), break, continue, else, pass, nested if, nested loops, use of compound expression in conditional and looping construct.
Strings: Creating, initialising and accessing the elements; string operators: +, *, in, not in, range slice [n:m]; comparing strings using relational operators; String functions & methods: len, capitalize, find, isalnum, isalpha, isdigit, lower, islower, isupper, upper, lstrip, rstrip, isspace, istitile, partition, replace, join, split, count, decode, encode, swapcase, String constants, Regular Expressions and Pattern Matching
Lists: Concept of mutable lists, creating, initializing and accessing the elements, traversing, appending, updating and deleting elements, composition, lists as arguments
List operations: joining, slicing, + , * , in , not in
List functions and methods: len( ), insert( ), append( ), extend( ), sort( ), remove( ), reverse( ), pop( ), list( ), count( ), extend( ), index( ), cmp( ), max( ), min( )
Dictionaries: Concept of key-value pair, creating, initialising and accessing the elements in a dictionary, traversing, appending updating and deleting elements
Dictionary Functions and methods: cmp( ), len( ), clear( ), get( ), has_key( ), items( ), key( ), update( ), values( ), pop( ), fromkeys( ), dict( )
Tuples: Immutable concept, creating, initialising and accessing elements in a tuple, Tuple assignment, Tuple slices, Tuple indexing,
Tuple Functions: cmp(), len(), max(), min(), tuple(), index(), count(), sum(), any(), all(), sorted(), reversed()
One programming problem in Python to be developed and tested on Computer during the examination. Marks are allotted on the basis of following:
One logical problem to be solved through flow charts
Problems using String or List manipulation: General Guidelines: Initial Requirement, developing an interface for user (it is advised to use text based interface screen), developing logic for playing the game and developing logic for scoring points
Record of the configuration of computer system used by the student in the computer lab (by exploring inside computer system in the first 2 lab classes).
Must have minimum 20 programs from the topics covered in class XI course.
* 1 mark is for innovating while developing programmes.
Viva will be asked from the syllabus covered in class XI and the project developed by the student(s).