• All the units are compulsory.
  • Separate marks are given with each unit.
Unit Area Covered Marks
unit 1 People and Environment 10 read more
unit 2 Institutions (social, economic, political, legal and cultural) and Environment 20 read more
unit 3 Knowledge, Science, Technology and Environment 15 read more
unit 4 Man-made Artefacts and Environment 15 read more
unit 5 Geosphere 10 read more
unit 6 Biosphere 15 read more
unit 7 Energy, Material, Information Flows 15 read more
Total Marks 100 Time: 3 Hours

Unit 1

People and Environment (10 Marks)

  • Humans as an integral part of the environment
  • Growth in human numbers over historical times
  • Migrations of people
  • Dispersion of human populations
  • Rural and urban settlements
  • Environment and health
  • Gender and Environment

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Unit 2

Institutions (social, economic, political, legal and cultural) and Environment (20 Marks)

  • Evolution of technology, social, economic and political organisation, and growing resource demands 2.2 Impact of economic growth on environment
  • Inequitable economic growth, poverty and environment
  • India as a country where many different modes of resource use co-exist
  • Open access, community controlled, private and state management of resources
  • Evolution of environmental concerns in different societies over the course of history
  • India's manifold traditions of conservation and sustainable use
  • Shift of environmental regulation from nature worship, customary law to Wildlife Act, Forest Conservation Act, Environmental Impact Assessment and Biological Diversity Act, etc.
  • Tools of environmental management, efficiency of resource use, sustaining harvests, pollution control
  • Concept of sustainable development
  • Concept of sustainable consumption
  • Ecological footprints
  • International economic regimes, forces of globalisation
  • International regimes of environmental regulation, framework convention on climate change, law of sea, trans-boundary movement of hazardous wastes, etc

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Unit 3

Knowledge, Science, Technology and Environment (15 Marks)

  • Growth of knowledge and human colonisation of new environments
  • Growth of knowledge and use of newer resources
  • Growth of knowledge, control of diseases and population growth
  • Implications of intellectual property rights for environment
  • Biotechnology, agriculture, health and environment
  • Intellectual property rights over living organisms
  • Traditional indigenous knowledge and its implication for environment

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Unit 4

Man-made Artefacts and Environment (15 Marks)

  • Technological advances and ever accelerating pace of manufacture of artefacts
  • Impact of agriculture, animal husbandry, aquaculture
  • Impact of agrochemicals on environment
  • Impact of industry, mining, transport
  • Generation and provision of energy, water and other natural resources
  • Impact of synthetic chemicals
  • Life cycle analysis of newspaper, household consumables, house construction, transport, personal computer, cell phones, etc.

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Unit 5

Geosphere (10 Marks)

  • Sustainable and non-sustainable use of renewable and non-renewable natural resources, such as water and minerals
  • Changing patterns of land use and land cover
  • Management of gaseous, solid, liquid and hazardous wastes
  • \
  • Air, water (fresh and marine), soil pollution – sources and consequences
  • Noise and radiation pollution – sources and consequences
  • Ozone layer depletion and its effect
  • Greenhouse effect; global warming and climatic change and its effects
  • Impact of natural and man-made disasters— prevention, control and mitigation
  • Strategies for reducing pollution and improving the environment

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Unit 6

Biosphere (15 Marks)

  • Sustainable and non-sustainable use of biological populations
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Impact of Genetically Modified Organisms
  • Deforestation, over-grazing, over-fishing
  • Concept and value of biodiversity
  • Components of biodiversity–genes, species and ecosystems
  • Landscape ecology
  • India as a mega diversity nation
  • Economic potential of biodiversity
  • Loss of biodiversity—threatened, endangered and extinct species
  • Strategies for conservation of biodiversity – in situ and ex situ
  • Mitigating the people—wildlife conflict

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Unit 7

Energy, Material, Information Flows (15 Marks)

  • Changing global patterns of energy and water consumption – from ancient to modern times
  • Energy and water consumption and quality of life
  • Rising demand for energy, and water—gap between demand and supply
  • Conventional and non-conventional energy sources—potential (Indian context) and limitations of each source, methods of harnessing and environmental consequences of their use with special reference to Indian context
  • Energy conservation—efficiency in production, transportation and utilisation of energy
  • Planning and management of energy; future sources of energy—hydrogen, alcohol, fuel cells
  • Enhancing efficiency of devices and optimising energy utilisation
  • Modern Information Communication Technology Revolution and Environment

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