Syllabus Of Grade XI - Geography (GE1112)


  • Separate marks are given with each unit.
Unit Area Covered Marks
Unit 1 Geography as a Discipline 10 read more
Unit 2 The Earth 10 read more
Unit 3 Landforms 10 read more
Unit 4 Climate 10 read more
Unit 5 Oceans 10 read more
Unit 6 Life on Earth 10 read more
Unit 8 Physiography 10 read more
Unit 9 Climate, Vegetation and Soils 10 read more
Unit 10 Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management 10 read more
Total Marks 100 Time: 3 Hours

Unit 1

Geography as a Discipline (10 Marks)

  • Geography as a science of spatial studies.
    • gain an understanding of the subject as it integrates several disciplines with focus on spatial nature of each aspect.
  • Branches of geography: physical and human; significance of physical geography.
    • differentiate between the two branches of Geography very clearly, and understand the significance of physical geography from human point of view.

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Unit 2

The Earth (10 Marks)

  • Stages in formation of earth, Interior of the earth
  • Continental drift and plate tectonics: concept of plate movement, boundaries/margins
  • Earth Movements – folds and faults
  • Earthquakes including tsunamis and volcanic eruptions.
  • comprehend the process of formation of earth with different stages. Understand about the interior of the earth and its three different layers.
  • comprehend the process of formation of earth with different stages. Understand about the interior of the earth and its three different layers.
  • comprehend the reasons of different types of earth movements and the resultant landforms.
  • acquire knowledge about the natural phenomena and comprehend the reasons behind them and their impact on humans.

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Unit 3

Landforms (10 Marks)

  • Rocks: major types of rocks:formation, characteristics, economic use.
  • Landforms and their evolution – relationship with rocks.
  • Geomorphic processes: weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil- formation
  • Landforms and their associated features: fluvial, glacial, Aeolian and coastal (examples from India).
  • acquire knowledge about the different processes leading to the formation of different types of rocks. Clearly distinguish among the three types of rocks and their characteristics and thus their economic importance.
  • understand the broad categories of landforms and the changes through time.
  • understand the nature, strength and weaknesses of rocks and the resultant landforms.
  • clearly distinguish between the processes. Gain a deep understanding of the processes and resultant landforms.
  • understand the process of soil formation. Gain insight into the work of different agents of erosion.
  • clearly understand the reason of a particular agent dominating a particular region (e.g. winds in dry areas).
  • clearly associate resultant landforms with agents of gradation.

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Unit 4

Climate (10 Marks)

  • Insolation and temperature: Definition, factors affecting distribution; mechanisms of energy transfer in earth – atmospheric system (conduction, convection, radiation and advection). Heat budget:latitudinal variation.
    • understand the definition and concept of insolation. Analyse how different temperatures are the result of variability of insolation.
    • comprehend the other factors affecting the distribution of temperature – distribution of land and sea, location and height of a landform etc.
    • comprehend mechanism of energy transfer on the surface of earth and atmosphere and the reaction between the nature of a landform and the process of energy transfer.
    • comprehend the heat budget of the earth and atmosphere and the latitudinal variation of the heat budget and the modes of transfer of temperature between latitudes.
  • Factors affecting distribution of temperature, vertical and horizontal distribution of temperature; inversion of temperature.
    • clearly demarcate between variations of temperature distribution vertically and horizontally and the reasons thereof.
    • understand the phenomenon of inversion of temperature in specific regions and comprehend the reasons causing them.
  • Pressure and winds – pressure belts, planetary, seasonal and local winds, air masses and fronts.
    • analyse scientifically the impact of temperature difference on atmospheric pressure and understand the formation of pressure and associated wind patterns. differentiate between different types of winds and air masses.
  • Atmospheric disturbances including depressions, tropical and extra tropical cyclones.
    • understand fronts and the reason behind their occurrence.
    • understand the Hydrological process and the reasons behind the process
  • Atmospheric moisture: Hydrological cycle, evaporation and humidity – absolute, specific and relative.
  • Condensation: dew, frost, fog, mist and cloud.
  • Rainfall: types – convectional, orographic, cyclonic and world distribution.
  • Classifying climate – Koeppen's, Thonthwaite, Trewarth (detailed study of only Koeppen's classification).
  • Climate change: Green house effect, global warming.

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Unit 5

Oceans (10 Marks)

  • Oceans – ocean bottom topography.
    • identify the causes leading to difference in ocean bottom topography.
    • know about the different types of topography.
  • Distribution of temperature and salinity; (vertical and horizontal) movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents.
    • understand the concept of differences in temperature and salinity, the causes of differences and different types.
    • understand different types of movements of ocean water, their causes and impact on human life.

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Unit 6

Life on Earth (10 Marks)

  • Biosphere –Biodiversity, its importance and conservation, concept of ecosystem and ecological balance.
    • explain biodiversity and its impact on humans.
    • familiarize with the concept of ecosystem and ecological balance.

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Unit 7


  • Location – Space relations in the world, identification of countries.
    • identify the countries in Monsoon Asia and learn about their surroundings.

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Unit 8

Physiography (10 Marks)

  • understand the structure of each country and identify the relief features.
  • identify the water bodies.
  • understand the drainage system and the concept of water divide and identify these.
  • identify physical/physiographic divisions and understand the reason behind their formation.

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Unit 9

Climate, Vegetation and Soils (10 Marks)

  • understand the reason behind the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure, winds and rainfall.
  • comprehend the pattern of onsetwithdrawl and distribution variabiting and break of monsoon and reasons behind it.
  • comprehend the concept of water balance, relationbetween precipitationand evaporation.
  • understand the division of climatic regions by Koeppens.
  • understand the division of climatic regions by Koeppens.
  • know about the distribution of natural vegetations. Comprehend the need for conservation of wild life.
  • get familiarized with the concept of biosphere reserve and its role in the conservation.
  • explain major types of soil and their distribution. Comprehend the concept of soil degradation, its causes and appreciate the need for soil conservation.

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Unit 10

Natural Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management (05 Marks)

  • Floods, Clouds bursts and Droughts
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami
  • Cyclones
  • Landslides
  • between hazards and Differentiate disasters. Understand each hazard and analyse the reasons behind them.
  • appreciate the need for disaster preparedness.

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